The discus throw (pronunciation), also known as disc throw, is a track and field event in which an athlete throws a heavy disc—called a discus—in an attempt to mark a farther distance than their competitors. It is an ancient sport, as demonstrated by the fifth-century-BC Myron statue Discobolus. Although not part of the modern pentathlon, it was one of the events of the ancient Greek pentathlon, which can be dated back to at least to 708 BC, and it is part of the modern decathlon.
|Men||Jürgen Schult (GDR) 74.08 m (243 ft 1⁄2 in) (1986)|
|Women||Gabriele Reinsch (GDR) 76.80 m (251 ft 11 in) (1988)|
|Men||Virgilijus Alekna (LTU) 69.89 m (229 ft 3 in) (2004)|
|Women||Martina Hellmann (GDR) 72.30 m (237 ft 2 in) (1988)|
The sport of throwing the discus traces back to it being an event in the original Olympic Games of Ancient Greece. The discus as a sport was resurrected in Magdeburg, Germany, by Christian Georg Kohlrausch and his students in the 1870s. Organized Men's competition was resumed in the late 19th century, and has been a part of the modern Summer Olympic Games since the first modern competition, the 1896 Summer Olympics. Images of discus throwers figured prominently in advertising for early modern Games, such as fundraising stamps for the 1896 games, the main posters for the 1920 and 1948 Summer Olympics. Today the sport of discus is a routine part of modern track-and-field meets at all levels, and retains a particularly iconic place in the Olympic Games.
The first modern athlete to throw the discus while rotating the whole body was František Janda-Suk from Bohemia (the present Czech Republic). He invented this technique when studying the position of the famous statue of Discobolus. After only one year of developing the technique he earned a silver medal in the 1900 Olympics.
Women's competition began in the first decades of the 20th century. Following competition at national and regional levels it was added to the Olympic program for the 1928 games.
The event consists of throwing a lenticular disc of a certain weight or size depending on the competitor. Men and women throw different sized discus with varying sizes of weights depending on age. The weight of the discus is either governed by the World Athletics for international or USA Track & Field for the United States.
|High School||1.6 kg||1 kg|
|Collegiate||2 kg||1 kg|
|Professional||2 kg||1 kg|
|Master's (35-59)||1.5 kg||1 kg|
|Master's (60-74)||1 kg||1 kg|
|Master's (75+)||1 kg||0.75 kg|
|≤17||1.5 kg||1 kg|
|18-19||1.75 kg||1 kg|
|20-49||2 kg||1 kg|
|50-59||1.5 kg||1 kg|
|60-74||1 kg||1 kg|
|75+||1 kg||0.75 kg|
The typical discus has sides made of plastic, wood, fiberglass, carbon fiber or metal with a metal rim and a metal core to attain the weight. The rim must be smooth, with no roughness or finger holds. A discus with more weight in the rim produces greater angular momentum for any given spin rate, and thus more stability, although it is more difficult to throw. However, a higher rim weight, if thrown correctly, can lead to a farther throw. In some competitions, a solid rubber discus is used (see in the United States).
To make a throw, the competitor starts in a circle of 2.5 m ( 8 ft 2+1⁄4 in) diameter, which is recessed in a concrete pad by 20 millimetres (0.79 in). The thrower typically takes an initial stance facing away from the direction of the throw. He then spins anticlockwise (for right-handers) around one and a half times through the circle to build momentum, then releases his throw. The discus must land within a 34.92-degree sector. The rules of competition for discus are virtually identical to those of shot put, except that the circle is larger, a stop board is not used and there are no form rules concerning how the discus is to be thrown.
The basic motion is a fore-handed sidearm movement. The discus is spun off the index finger or the middle finger of the throwing hand. In flight the disc spins clockwise when viewed from above for a right-handed thrower, and anticlockwise for a left-handed thrower. As well as achieving maximum momentum in the discus on throwing, the discus' distance is also determined by the trajectory the thrower imparts, as well as the aerodynamic behavior of the discus. Generally, throws into a moderate headwind achieve the maximum distance. Also, a faster-spinning discus imparts greater gyroscopic stability. The technique of discus throwing is quite difficult to master and needs much experience to perfect, thus most top throwers are 30 years old or more.
The discus technique can be broken down into phases. The purpose is to transfer from the back to the front of the throwing circle while turning through one and a half circles. The speed of delivery is high, and speed is built up during the throw (slow to fast). Correct technique involves the buildup of torque so that maximum force can be applied to the discus on delivery.
Initially, the thrower takes up their position in the throwing circle, distributing their body weight evenly over both feet, which are roughly shoulder width apart. They crouch in order to adopt a more efficient posture to start from whilst also isometrically preloading their muscles; this will allow them to start faster and achieve a more powerful throw. They then begin the wind-up, which sets the tone for the entire throw; the rhythm of the wind-up and throw is very important.
Focusing on rhythm can bring about the consistency to get in the right positions that many throwers lack. Executing a sound discus throw with solid technique requires perfect balance. This is due to the throw being a linear movement combined with a one and a half rotation and an implement at the end of one arm. Thus, a good discus thrower needs to maintain balance within the circle.
For a right handed thrower, the next stage is to move the weight over the left foot. From this position the right foot is raised, and the athlete 'runs' across the circle. There are various techniques for this stage where the leg swings out to a small or great extent, some athletes turn on their left heel (e.g. Ilke Wylluda) but turning on the ball of the foot is far more common.
The aim is to land in the 'power position', the right foot should be in the center and the heel should not touch the ground at any point. The left foot should land very quickly after the right. Weight should be mostly over the back foot with as much torque as possible in the body—so the right arm is high and far back. This is very hard to achieve.
The critical stage is the delivery of the discus, from this 'power position' the hips drive through hard, and will be facing the direction of the throw on delivery. Athletes employ various techniques to control the end-point and recover from the throw, such as fixing feet (to pretty much stop dead), or an active reverse spinning onto the left foot (e.g. Virgilijus Alekna).
Sports scientist Richard Ganslen researched the Aerodynamics of the Discus, reporting the discus will stall at an angle of 29°.
The discus throw has been the subject of a number of well-known ancient Greek statues and Roman copies such as the Discobolus and Discophoros. The discus throw also appears repeatedly in ancient Greek mythology, featured as a means of manslaughter in the cases of Hyacinth, Crocus, Phocus, and Acrisius, and as a named event in the funeral games of Patroclus.
Discus throwers have been selected as a main motif in numerous collectors' coins. One of the recent samples is the €10 Greek Discus commemorative coin, minted in 2003 to commemorate the 2004 Summer Olympics. On the obverse of the coin a modern athlete is seen in the foreground in a half-turned position, while in the background an ancient discus thrower has been captured in a lively bending motion, with the discus high above his head, creating a vivid representation of the sport.
Under US high school rules, if a discus hits the surrounding safety cage and is deflected into the sector, it is ruled a foul. In contrast, under International, WMA, NCAA and USATF rules, it is ruled a legal throw. Additionally, under US high school rules, distances thrown are rounded down to the nearest whole inch, rather than the nearest centimeter.
US high school rules allow the use of a solid rubber discus; it is cheaper and easier to learn to throw (due to its more equal distribution of weight, as opposed to the heavy rim weight of the metal rim/core discus), but less durable. However, there are a vast variety of metal discuses to choose from. The weight is not always distributed into the rim of metal discuses as there are four categories that the discs are sold in; center weighted, low spin, high spin, and very high spin. Center weighted discs carry 50-60% of their weight in the rims and are intended for beginner throwers just as rubber discs are.
All-time top 25
- Correct as of July 2020.
|1||74.08 m ( 243 ft 1⁄2 in)||Jürgen Schult (GDR)||6 June 1986||Neubrandenburg|
|2||73.88 m ( 242 ft 4+1⁄2 in)||Virgilijus Alekna (LTU)||3 August 2000||Kaunas|
|3||73.38 m ( 240 ft 8+3⁄4 in)||Gerd Kanter (EST)||4 September 2006||Helsingborg|
|4||71.86 m (235 ft 9 in)||Yuriy Dumchev (URS)||29 May 1983||Moscow|
|Daniel Ståhl (SWE)||29 June 2019||Bottnaryd|||
|6||71.84 m ( 235 ft 8+1⁄4 in)||Piotr Małachowski (POL)||8 June 2013||Hengelo|
|7||71.70 m ( 235 ft 2+3⁄4 in)||Róbert Fazekas (HUN)||14 July 2002||Szombathely|
|8||71.50 m ( 234 ft 6+3⁄4 in)||Lars Riedel (GER)||3 May 1997||Wiesbaden|
|9||71.32 m ( 233 ft 11+3⁄4 in)||Ben Plucknett (USA)||4 June 1983||Eugene|
|10||71.26 m ( 233 ft 9+1⁄2 in)||John Powell (USA)||9 June 1984||San Jose|
|71.26 m ( 233 ft 9+1⁄2 in)||Rickard Bruch (SWE)||15 November 1984||Malmö|
|71.26 m ( 233 ft 9+1⁄2 in)||Imrich Bugár (TCH)||25 May 1985||San Jose|
|13||71.18 m ( 233 ft 6+1⁄4 in)||Art Burns (USA)||19 July 1983||San Jose|
|14||71.16 m ( 233 ft 5+1⁄2 in)||Wolfgang Schmidt (GDR)||9 August 1978||Berlin|
|15||71.14 m ( 233 ft 4+3⁄4 in)||Anthony Washington (USA)||22 May 1996||Salinas|
|16||71.06 m ( 233 ft 1+1⁄2 in)||Luis Delís (CUB)||21 May 1983||Havana|
|17||70.98 m ( 232 ft 10+1⁄4 in)||Mac Wilkins (USA)||9 July 1980||Helsinki|
|18||70.82 m (232 ft 4 in)||Aleksander Tammert (EST)||15 April 2006||Denton|
|19||70.78 m ( 232 ft 2+1⁄2 in)||Fedrick Dacres (JAM)||16 June 2019||Rabat|||
|20||70.66 m ( 231 ft 9+3⁄4 in)||Robert Harting (GER)||22 May 2012||Turnov|
|21||70.54 m (231 ft 5 in)||Dmitriy Shevchenko (RUS)||7 May 2002||Krasnodar|
|22||70.38 m ( 230 ft 10+3⁄4 in)||Jay Silvester (USA)||16 May 1971||Lancaster|
|23||70.32 m ( 230 ft 8+1⁄2 in)||Frantz Kruger (RSA)||26 May 2002||Salon-de-Provence|
|24||70.29 m ( 230 ft 7+1⁄4 in)||Mauricio Ortega (COL)||22 July 2020||Lovelhe|||
|25||70.06 m ( 229 ft 10+1⁄4 in)||Romas Ubartas (LTU)||8 May 1988||Smalininkai|
Below is a list of all other performances (excluding ancillary throws) equal or superior to 71.00 m:
- Gerd Kanter also threw 72.02 (2007), 71.88 (2008), 71.64 (2009) and 71.45 (2010).
- Virgilijus Alekna also threw 71.56 (2007), 71.25 (2008), 71.12 (2000) and 71.08 (2006).
- Daniel Ståhl also threw 71.37 (2020) and 71.29 (2017).
- Róbert Fazekas also threw 71.25 (2002).
- Ben Plucknett also threw 71.14 (1983) and 71.08 (1983).
- Lars Riedel also threw 71.06 (1996).
- Ricky Bruch also threw 71.00 (1984).
At the 2019 Diamond League Meeting in Doha, Qatar, Daniel Ståhl became the first man to produce six throws beyond 69.50 in a single competition.
- Ben Plucknett also threw a world record of 72.34 on 7 July 1981 in Stockholm, but this performance was annulled due to doping offense.
- Rickard Bruch also threw 72.18 on 23 July 1974 at an exhibition meeting in Piteå.
- John Powell also threw 72.08 on 11 September 1987 in Klagshamn, but the throw was made onto a sloping/downhill sector.
- Kamy Keshmiri threw 70.84 on 27 May 1992 in Salinas, but this performance was annulled due to doping offense.
Robert Garrett, Gold Medalist in both the discus and shot put at the 1896 Summer Olympics
2007 World Gold Medalist Gerd Kanter in Osaka
- Correct as of August 2020.
|1||76.80 m ( 251 ft 11+1⁄2 in)||Gabriele Reinsch (GDR)||9 July 1988||Neubrandenburg|
|2||74.56 m ( 244 ft 7+1⁄4 in)||Zdeňka Šilhavá (TCH)||26 August 1984||Nitra|
|74.56 m ( 244 ft 7+1⁄4 in)||Ilke Wyludda (GDR)||23 July 1989||Neubrandenburg|
|4||74.08 m ( 243 ft 1⁄2 in)||Diana Sachse (GDR)||20 June 1987||Karl-Marx-Stadt|
|5||73.84 m (242 ft 3 in)||Daniela Costian (ROU)||30 April 1988||Bucharest|
|6||73.36 m (240 ft 8 in)||Irina Meszynski (GDR)||17 August 1984||Prague|
|7||73.28 m (240 ft 5 in)||Galina Savinkova (URS)||8 September 1984||Donetsk|
|8||73.22 m ( 240 ft 2+1⁄2 in)||Tsvetanka Khristova (BUL)||19 April 1987||Kazanlak|
|9||73.10 m ( 239 ft 9+3⁄4 in)||Gisela Beyer (GDR)||20 July 1984||Berlin|
|10||72.92 m ( 239 ft 2+3⁄4 in)||Martina Hellmann (GDR)||20 August 1987||Potsdam|
|11||72.14 m (236 ft 8 in)||Galina Murashova (URS)||17 August 1984||Prague|
|12||71.80 m ( 235 ft 6+3⁄4 in)||Mariya Vergova (BUL)||13 July 1980||Sofia|
|13||71.68 m (235 ft 2 in)||Xiao Yanling (CHN)||14 March 1992||Beijing|
|14||71.58 m (234 ft 10 in)||Ellina Zvereva (URS)||12 June 1988||Leningrad|
|15||71.50 m ( 234 ft 6+3⁄4 in)||Evelin Jahl (GDR)||10 May 1980||Potsdam|
|16||71.41 m ( 234 ft 3+1⁄4 in)||Sandra Perković (CRO)||18 July 2017||Bellinzona|||
|17||71.30 m (233 ft 11 in)||Larisa Korotkevich (RUS)||29 May 1992||Sochi|
|18||71.22 m ( 233 ft 7+3⁄4 in)||Ria Stalman (NED)||15 July 1984||Walnut|
|19||70.88 m ( 232 ft 6+1⁄2 in)||Hilda Ramos (CUB)||8 May 1992||Havana|
|20||70.80 m ( 232 ft 3+1⁄4 in)||Larisa Mikhalchenko (URS)||18 June 1988||Kharkiv|
|21||70.68 m ( 231 ft 10+1⁄2 in)||Maritza Martén (CUB)||18 July 1992||Sevilla|
|22||70.65 m ( 231 ft 9+1⁄4 in)||Denia Caballero (CUB)||20 June 2015||Bilbao|||
|23||70.50 m ( 231 ft 3+1⁄2 in)||Faina Melnik (URS)||24 April 1976||Sochi|
|24||70.34 m ( 230 ft 9+1⁄4 in)||Silvia Madetzky (GDR)||16 May 1988||Athens|
|25||70.22 m ( 230 ft 4+1⁄2 in)||Jorinde van Klinken (NLD)||22 May 2021||Tucson|
Below is a list of all other performances (excluding ancillary throws) equal or superior to 72.95 m:
- Gabriele Reinsch also threw 74.44 (1988) and 73.42 (1988).
- Ilke Wyludda also threw 74.40 (1988), 73.16 (1988) and 73.04 (1989).
- Diana Sachse also threw 73.90 (1987), 73.32 (1987), 73.26 (1986), 73.24 (1987) and 73.04 (1987).
- Daniela Costian also threw 73.78 (1988).
- Galina Savinkova also threw 73.26 (1983) and 72.96 (1985).
- Martina Hellmann also threw 78.14 at an unofficial meeting in Berlin on 6 September 1988
- Ilke Wyludda also threw 75.36 at an unofficial meeting in Berlin on 6 September 1988
- Darya Pishchalnikova of Russia threw a best of 70.69 in Cheboksary on 5 July 2012, but this performance was annulled due to doping offense.
|1896 Athens||Robert Garrett|
|1900 Paris||Rudolf Bauer|
|1904 St. Louis||Martin Sheridan|
|1908 London||Martin Sheridan|
|1912 Stockholm||Armas Taipale|
|1920 Antwerp||Elmer Niklander|
|1924 Paris||Bud Houser|
|1928 Amsterdam||Bud Houser|
|1932 Los Angeles||John Anderson|
|1936 Berlin||Ken Carpenter|
|1948 London||Adolfo Consolini|
|1952 Helsinki||Sim Iness|
|1956 Melbourne||Al Oerter|
|1960 Rome||Al Oerter|
|1964 Tokyo||Al Oerter|
|1968 Mexico City||Al Oerter|
|1972 Munich||Ludvík Daněk|
|1976 Montreal||Mac Wilkins|
|1980 Moscow||Viktor Rashchupkin|
|1984 Los Angeles||Rolf Danneberg|
|1988 Seoul||Jürgen Schult|
|1992 Barcelona||Romas Ubartas|
|1996 Atlanta||Lars Riedel|
|2000 Sydney||Virgilijus Alekna|
|2004 Athens||Virgilijus Alekna|
|2008 Beijing||Gerd Kanter|
|2012 London||Robert Harting|
|2016 Rio de Janeiro||Christoph Harting|
|1928 Amsterdam||Halina Konopacka|
|1932 Los Angeles||Lillian Copeland|
|1936 Berlin||Gisela Mauermayer|
|1948 London||Micheline Ostermeyer|
|1952 Helsinki||Nina Romashkova|
|1956 Melbourne||Olga Fikotová|
|1960 Rome||Nina Romashkova|
|1964 Tokyo||Tamara Press|
United Team of Germany
|1968 Mexico City||Lia Manoliu|
|1972 Munich||Faina Melnik|
|1976 Montreal||Evelin Schlaak|
|1980 Moscow||Evelin Jahl|
|1984 Los Angeles||Ria Stalman|
|1988 Seoul||Martina Hellmann|
|1992 Barcelona||Maritza Martén|
|1996 Atlanta||Ilke Wyludda|
|2000 Sydney||Ellina Zvereva|
|2004 Athens||Natalya Sadova|
|2008 Beijing||Stephanie Brown Trafton|
|2012 London||Sandra Perković|
|2016 Rio de Janeiro||Sandra Perković|
World Championships medalists
|1983 Helsinki||Imrich Bugár (TCH)||Luis Delís (CUB)||Géjza Valent (TCH)|
|1987 Rome||Jürgen Schult (GDR)||John Powell (USA)||Luis Delís (CUB)|
|1991 Tokyo||Lars Riedel (GER)||Erik de Bruin (NED)||Attila Horváth (HUN)|
|1993 Stuttgart||Lars Riedel (GER)||Dmitry Shevchenko (RUS)||Jürgen Schult (GER)|
|1995 Gothenburg||Lars Riedel (GER)||Vladimir Dubrovshchik (BLR)||Vasiliy Kaptyukh (BLR)|
|1997 Athens||Lars Riedel (GER)||Virgilijus Alekna (LTU)||Jürgen Schult (GER)|
|1999 Seville||Anthony Washington (USA)||Jürgen Schult (GER)||Lars Riedel (GER)|
|2001 Edmonton||Lars Riedel (GER)||Virgilijus Alekna (LTU)||Michael Möllenbeck (GER)|
|2003 Saint-Denis||Virgilijus Alekna (LTU)||Róbert Fazekas (HUN)||Vasiliy Kaptyukh (BLR)|
|2005 Helsinki||Virgilijus Alekna (LTU)||Gerd Kanter (EST)||Michael Möllenbeck (GER)|
|2007 Osaka||Gerd Kanter (EST)||Robert Harting (GER)||Rutger Smith (NED)|
|2009 Berlin||Robert Harting (GER)||Piotr Małachowski (POL)||Gerd Kanter (EST)|
|2011 Daegu||Robert Harting (GER)||Gerd Kanter (EST)||Ehsan Haddadi (IRI)|
|2013 Moscow||Robert Harting (GER)||Piotr Małachowski (POL)||Gerd Kanter (EST)|
|2015 Beijing||Piotr Małachowski (POL)||Philip Milanov (BEL)||Robert Urbanek (POL)|
|2017 London||Andrius Gudžius (LTU)||Daniel Ståhl (SWE)||Mason Finley (USA)|
|2019 Doha||Daniel Ståhl (SWE)||Fedrick Dacres (JAM)||Lukas Weißhaidinger (AUT)|
|1983 Helsinki||Martina Opitz (GDR)||Galina Murašova (URS)||Mariya Petkova (BUL)|
|1987 Rome||Martina Hellmann (GDR)||Diana Gansky (GDR)||Tsvetanka Khristova (BUL)|
|1991 Tokyo||Tsvetanka Khristova (BUL)||Ilke Wyludda (GER)||Larisa Mikhalchenko (URS)|
|1993 Stuttgart||Olga Chernyavskaya (RUS)||Daniela Costian (AUS)||Min Chunfeng (CHN)|
|1995 Gothenburg||Ellina Zvereva (BLR)||Ilke Wyludda (GER)||Olga Chernyavskaya (RUS)|
|1997 Athens||Beatrice Faumuina (NZL)||Ellina Zvereva (BLR)||Natalya Sadova (RUS)|
|1999 Seville||Franka Dietzsch (GER)||Anastasia Kelesidou (GRE)||Nicoleta Grasu (ROU)|
|2001 Edmonton||Ellina Zvereva (BLR)||Nicoleta Grasu (ROU)||Anastasia Kelesidou (GRE)|
|2003 Saint-Denis||Iryna Yatchenko (BLR)||Anastasia Kelesidou (GRE)||Ekaterini Voggoli (GRE)|
|2005 Helsinki||Franka Dietzsch (GER)||Natalya Sadova (RUS)||Věra Pospíšilová-Cechlová (CZE)|
|2007 Osaka||Franka Dietzsch (GER)||Yarelis Barrios (CUB)||Nicoleta Grasu (ROU)|
|2009 Berlin||Dani Samuels (AUS)||Yarelis Barrios (CUB)||Nicoleta Grasu (ROU)|
|2011 Daegu||Li Yanfeng (CHN)||Nadine Müller (GER)||Yarelis Barrios (CUB)|
|2013 Moscow||Sandra Perković (CRO)||Mélina Robert-Michon (FRA)||Yarelis Barrios (CUB)|
|2015 Beijing||Denia Caballero (CUB)||Sandra Perković (CRO)||Nadine Müller (GER)|
|2017 London||Sandra Perković (CRO)||Dani Stevens (AUS)||Mélina Robert-Michon (FRA)|
|2019 Doha||Yaime Pérez (CUB)||Denia Caballero (CUB)||Sandra Perković (CRO)|
- List of discus throw national champions (men)
Notes and references
- ^ "Sports - List of Summer and Winter Olympic Sports". olympic.org. 14 January 2018.
- ^ "Discus Throwing | Encyclopedia.com". www.encyclopedia.com. Retrieved 2020-03-11.
- ^ "History of Discus". www.discusnada.org. Retrieved 2020-03-11.
- ^ "Discus Throw". site.dev.aws.worldathletics.org. Retrieved 2020-10-26.
- ^ "Track and Field Throwing Implement Weight Requirements Rules". www.everythingtrackandfield.com. Retrieved 2020-03-11.
- ^ "Book of Rules | Official Documents". www.worldathletics.org. Retrieved 2020-03-11.
- ^ "The Rules and Regulations Every Discus Thrower Should Be Aware Of". Sports Aspire. 2009-11-04. Retrieved 2020-03-11.
- ^ Rosenbaum, Mike (2018-12-11). "How to Throw a Discus Step-By-Step". LiveAbout. Retrieved 2020-03-11.
- ^ Cappos, Scott. "Shot Put and Discus Technique and Training". Digital Track and Field.
- ^ a b throwhammer (13 September 2010). "wyludda discus throw 1996 olympics" – via YouTube.
- ^ Power position, about.com
- ^ ntujavelin (26 December 2008). "2005 World Championship Men's Discus - 1st Virgilijus Alekna" – via YouTube.
- ^ http://archive.auvac.org/research/publications/files/2003/niewiadomska.pdf
- ^ "NATIONAL FEDERATION HIGH SCHOOL DISCUS RULES" (PDF). GV Track and Field. Retrieved 11 March 2020.
- ^ https://www.elitethrowscoaching.com/single-post/2018/02/27/How-To-Choose-The-Correct-Discus-Rim-Weight
- ^ Discus Throw - men - senior - outdoor. IAAF. Retrieved on 2014-01-20.
- ^ "All-time men's best Discus Throw". alltime-athletics.com. 21 July 2019. Retrieved 28 July 2019.
- ^ "Stahl goes to equal fourth on the world all-time discus list with 71.86m". European Athletics. 29 June 2019. Retrieved 20 July 2019.
- ^ "Discus Throw Results" (PDF). sportresult.com. 16 June 2019. Retrieved 23 June 2019.
- ^ Bob Ramsak (24 July 2020). "Dadic impresses in one-hour heptathlon, Ortega smashes South American discus record". World Athletics. Retrieved 24 July 2020.
- ^ Bob Ramsak (3 May 2019). "Stahl sends discus beyond 70 metres in Doha – IAAF Diamond League". IAAF. Retrieved 3 May 2019.
- ^ Discus Throw - women - senior - outdoor. IAAF. Retrieved on 2014-01-20.
- ^ "All-time women's best Discus Throw". alltime-athletics.com. 23 June 2019. Retrieved 28 July 2019.
- ^ Diego Sampaolo (19 July 2017). "Perkovic throws 71.41m in Bellinzona, world's best discus mark since 1992". IAAF. Retrieved 19 July 2017.
- ^ "Denia Caballero sets Discus world lead of 70.65, Pichardo debuts in long jump". watchathletics.com. 21 June 2015. Retrieved 21 June 2015.
- ^ Day 2 of IOC Executive Board meeting in St. Petersburg . Olympic (2013-05-30). Retrieved on 2014-04-19.
- World Record
- Discus History
- IAAF list of discus-throw records in XML